Central Bank Perspectives
Bank for International Settlement
Central bank digital currency: the quest for minimally invasive technology
June 7, 2021
Working Papers No 948
The authors set out the economic and operational requirements for a “minimally invasive” design – one that preserves the private sector’s primary role in retail payments and financial intermediation – for CBDCs and discuss the implications for the underlying technology. Developments inspired by popular cryptocurrency systems do not meet these requirements. Instead, cash is the model for CBDC design. Showing particular promise are digital banknotes that run on “intermediated” or “hybrid” CBDC architectures, supported with technology to facilitate record-keeping of direct claims on the central bank by private sector entities.
Central bank digital currencies - Third report of working group
May 18, 2021
This report by a Norges Bank working group summarises the third phase of Norges Bank’s research into CBDCs. The working group discusses the characteristics any CBDC must have, relevant technical solutions and the impact of introducing a CBDC. The working group also discusses international developments in this area and how Norges Bank’s research into CBDCs can continue. The purpose of publishing the working group’s report is to provide information about its work, disseminate knowledge and foster dialogue among stakeholders.
Bank of Israel
A Bank of Israel Digital Shekel – Potential Benefits, Draft Model, and Issues to Examine
May 10, 2021
The document outlines, in general terms only, a draft model of a Bank of Israel digital currency. This draft does not represent any Bank of Israel decision regarding the characteristics of a digital shekel should any be issued. The draft model is the basis for a discussion and for examination of alternatives by the work teams involved in the matter at the Bank of Israel.
International Monetary Fund
Dear Mom, Forget the Cash
March 1, 2021
This article is written in letter form to a previous generation accustomed to transacting only in the physical world. It explains the inevitable evolution of money into the digital world. It describes the benefits and some of the challenges that we will encounter as central bank digital currency is introduced.
The Federal Reserve System of the United States
Preconditions for a general-purpose central bank digital currency
February 24, 2021
FEDS Notes 2021
Money is a social and legal construct underpinned by trust. Conceptions of money have evolved and money has taken many forms over the years. The Federal Reserve note, which was first issued in 1914, is a relatively recent development by historical standards. Today, there are ongoing discussions on a new form of central bank money distinct from physical cash and limited-access central bank deposits. This report focuses on the potential for a general-purpose CBDC that can be used by the public for day-to-day payments.
Bank for International Settlements
Central bank digital currencies: foundational principles and core features
October 9, 2020
Report no 1
The Bank of Canada, European Central Bank, Bank of Japan, Sveriges Riksbank, Swiss National Bank, Bank of England, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve and Bank for International Settlements have collaborated on a report setting out common foundational principles and core features of a CBDC.
Bank of Canada
Security and convenience of a central bank digital currency
October 5, 2020
Staff Analytical Note 2020-21
The central bank could mitigate potential security risks in the design of the CBDC by limiting balances or transfers, modifying liability rules or imposing security protocols on storage providers.
European Central Bank
Report on a digital euro
October 1, 2020
This report examines the issuance of a central bank digital currency (CBDC) – the digital euro – from the perspective of the Eurosystem. Such a digital euro would be a central bank liability offered in digital form for use by citizens and businesses for their retail payments. It would complement the current offering of cash and wholesale central bank deposits.
Arab Monetary Fund
Central Bank Digital Currencies: An Analytical Framework for Arab Central Banks
September 15, 2020
No. 152 2020
This policy paper aims at exploring the opportunities and challenges related to the issuance of digital currencies by central banks in the Arab Region, providing an analytical framework for a comprehensive set of perspectives to look at when a central bank explores the opportunity to initiate its digital currency project.
Central bank digital currency project status report
August 31, 2020
The CBDC project is now in its third phase. The purpose of the third phase is to provide a more solid foundation for assessing whether Norges Bank should work to issue a CBDC and if so, in what form.
Bank for International Settlements
Rise of the central bank digital currencies: drivers, approaches and technologies
August 15, 2020
BIS Working Papers No 880