Central bank digital currencies: foundational principles and core features
Report no 1
The Bank of Canada, European Central Bank, Bank of Japan, Sveriges Riksbank, Swiss National Bank, Bank of England, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve and Bank for International Settlements have collaborated on a report setting out common foundational principles and core features of a CBDC.
This report examines the issuance of a central bank digital currency (CBDC) – the digital euro – from the perspective of the Eurosystem. Such a digital euro would be a central bank liability offered in digital form for use by citizens and businesses for their retail payments. It would complement the current offering of cash and wholesale central bank deposits.
Central Bank Digital Currencies: An Analytical Framework for Arab Central Banks
No. 152 2020
This policy paper aims at exploring the opportunities and challenges related to the issuance of digital currencies by central banks in the Arab Region, providing an analytical framework for a comprehensive set of perspectives to look at when a central bank explores the opportunity to initiate its digital currency project.
Rise of the central bank digital currencies: drivers, approaches and technologies
BIS Working Papers No 880
BIS sets out a comprehensive database of technical approaches and policy stances on issuance. It takes stock of the technical design options. It concludes with an in-depth description of three distinct CBDC approaches by the central banks of China, Sweden and Canada.
Comparing Means of Payment: What Role for a Central Bank Digital Currency?
This paper looks at the potential benefit that a central bank digital currency (CBDC) could provide in the context of existing payment mechanisms. Central banks today provide the primary payment mechanisms for trade and commerce: cash, used by the public, and electronic payment services, used by eligible financial institutions.
Bank of Canada
Designing a CBDC for Universal Access
Staff Analytical 2020-10
The Bank designs every note to be easily used by everyone, including people who are blind or partially sighted. Our current research explores how a central bank digital currency (CBDC) could also be designed for universal access, should the Bank decide to issue one.
In addition to securing the underlying storage and transfer of value, security involves aspects of privacy and resilience. Threats must be mitigated to protect the integrity of funds and the confidentiality of users. A secure CBDC system will retain public trust in the central bank.
This note outlines what is technologically feasible for privacy in a central bank digital currency (CBDC) system. Privacy in a CBDC goes beyond binary choices of anonymity or full disclosure. System designers have a range of choices around the type of information to keep private and who to keep it private from.
Is Central Bank Currency Fundamental to the Monetary System?
Staff Analytical Note 2020-2
In this paper, we discuss whether the ability of individuals to convert commercial bank money (i.e., bank deposits) into central bank money is fundamentally important for the monetary system. This is a significant question since the use of cash—the only form of central bank money that the public currently has access to—is declining rapidly in many countries. The question is highly relevant to the discussion around whether central banks need to issue a retail central bank digital currency (CBDC).
This paper explores the technological approach to constructing a CBDC system for contingency planning purposes. Any design needs to be determined by policy choices about the attributes of the CBDC; the business model; and the qualities the system supports.